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This study is the first to provide a full mechanistic analysis of the impact of regime shifts on the fate of PAHs in a real lake ecosystem.

ABSTRACT: Dietary exposure is considered the dominant pathway for fish exposed to persistent, hydrophobic chemicals in the environment.

ABSTRACT: Elevated contaminant levels in the North American Great Lakes have resulted in restrictive fish consumption advisories.

Avoiding the risks associated with fish consumption may also decrease the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) acids; compounds that have been associated with human health benefits.

We developed a contaminant fate model which is linked to an ecosystem model (PCLake) for shallow lakes.

This integrated model was successful in simulating long-term dynamics (1953–2012) of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the main biotic and abiotic components in a large shallow lake (Chaohu in China), which has undergone regime shifts in this period.

In general, the intake of EPA DHA was more influenced by the consumption advisory than the EPA DHA content.

Models that are fit to simulate impacts from these complex interactions are scarce.

Then, we address issues such as contaminants and parasites that constrain the ability of fish harvested by recreational fishers to be consumed.

Although recreational fishing is foremost a leisure activity, the harvest of fish for personal consumption by recreational fishers has contributed and will continue to contribute to human nutrition by providing an accessible, affordable and generally highly sustainable food source, notwithstanding concerns about food safety and possibly overfishing.

There is a misconception that because recreational fishing happens during non-work (i.e.

leisure) time, the nutritional motivation is negligible; therefore, the role of recreational fishing in supporting nutrition (and thus food security) at regional, national or global scales is underappreciated.

Models that are fit to simulate impacts from these complex interactions are scarce.

Then, we address issues such as contaminants and parasites that constrain the ability of fish harvested by recreational fishers to be consumed.

Although recreational fishing is foremost a leisure activity, the harvest of fish for personal consumption by recreational fishers has contributed and will continue to contribute to human nutrition by providing an accessible, affordable and generally highly sustainable food source, notwithstanding concerns about food safety and possibly overfishing.

There is a misconception that because recreational fishing happens during non-work (i.e.

leisure) time, the nutritional motivation is negligible; therefore, the role of recreational fishing in supporting nutrition (and thus food security) at regional, national or global scales is underappreciated.

Attempts to better quantify the role of fish harvested by recreational fishers and the relative contribution to overall food security and personal nutrition will provide resource managers and policymakers the information needed to guide management activities and policy development.