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” By using radioactive phosphorus (P) labelled soil to trace the uptake of P by mycorrhizal fungi into Medicago truncatula plants (an important pasture legume in Australia), the study measured the function of mycorrhizal fungi to see whether it was affected by different soils.

They found less P was taken up by fungi in a local field soil than in sterilised soil, then tested another 21 soils from across Scandinavia to see how common mycorrhizal suppression is in natural soils, with highly variable results.

Instead, they use sterilised soil that has been inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi to minimise contaminants and other variables. New research published in the ISME Journal suggests that such experiments might not accurately represent what happens in a field situation.

Working with collaborators in Denmark, co-first author Dr Stephanie Watts-Williams (Ramsay Fellow with the University of Adelaide School of Agriculture Food and Wine and the ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology) says the research showed for the first time that there is natural suppression of mycorrhizal fungi in soils.

By providing an immersive visual, auditory and spatial learning environment, VR allows for experiential learning inside of “worlds” that can’t be viewed in reality.

With VPC, a student can move across the inside surface of a plant cell membrane, help a chloroplast to photosynthesise, and can watch as DNA moves around them in the nucleus.

“Not only is temperature arguably more important than the type of wheat, but small temperature changes can make a huge difference.

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Students often have difficulty learning the structure and function of plant cells as their size means they can’t be directly observed.Lead researcher Dr Shaobai Huang said the study looked at what different types of wheat plants make inside their cells to help them cope with a lack of oxygen.“We tested the plants at 15°C to 28°C, and we found a dramatic negative impact on how well wheat plants recovered from a lack of oxygen under the higher temperatures,” he said.“In a preliminary study, we found evidence that the functions of mycorrhizal fungi are suppressed in natural soils.We then carried out more experiments to determine what might be the cause of the suppression – is it a biological or physical component of the soil, or both?

Students often have difficulty learning the structure and function of plant cells as their size means they can’t be directly observed.

Lead researcher Dr Shaobai Huang said the study looked at what different types of wheat plants make inside their cells to help them cope with a lack of oxygen.

“We tested the plants at 15°C to 28°C, and we found a dramatic negative impact on how well wheat plants recovered from a lack of oxygen under the higher temperatures,” he said.

“In a preliminary study, we found evidence that the functions of mycorrhizal fungi are suppressed in natural soils.

We then carried out more experiments to determine what might be the cause of the suppression – is it a biological or physical component of the soil, or both?

Further investigation through altering abiotic features of the soils and DNA sequencing led the researchers to conclude that p H indirectly affects suppression of mycorrhizal fungi through altering the microbiome of the soil.