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Although detection of fetal hreartbeat by the A-scan and audio doppler ultrasound (the first "Doptone" was invented in 1965, see section below on doppler) had been variously reported by early groups such as Wang (1964, M-mode from 10 weeks), Kratochwil (1967, vaginal A-scan from 7 weeks), Bang and Holm (1968, A- and M-mode from 10 weeks), it was not until 1972 that Hugh Robinson in Glasgow, basing on improved instrumentation reported a practically useful 100% detection of fetal cardiac action from 7 weeks onwards.The fetus was first located with B- scan ultrasound and the heartbeat obseved with a directed beam in A- and M-mode (also see below).Both had appeared as landmark papers in the Lancet.They were the first cases of these conditions in which a correct diagnosis by ultrasound had effectively led to a termination of pregnancy.Ultrasonic diagnosis of molar pregnancies was described as early as 1963 by the same group.Stuart Campbell's landmark publication in 1968 "An improved method of fetal cephalometry by ultrasound" described the use of both the A- and B-mode scan to measure the fetal biparietal diameter.

Kobayashi also described the ultrasonic appearance of extra-uterine pregnancy using bi-stable B-mode ultrasound in 1969.

It was not until 1979 that Margi Mantoni and Jan Fog Pederson in Copenhagen first described the visualization of the yolk sac, using the static B-scan.

Also read a brief discussion on the historical aspects of the fetal trunk circumference measurements.

Visualising the gestational sac by B-mode ultrasound was first described by the Donald and Mac Vicar team in 1963.

In 1965, they were able to demonstrate a 5-weeks gestational sac.

Kobayashi also described the ultrasonic appearance of extra-uterine pregnancy using bi-stable B-mode ultrasound in 1969.It was not until 1979 that Margi Mantoni and Jan Fog Pederson in Copenhagen first described the visualization of the yolk sac, using the static B-scan.Also read a brief discussion on the historical aspects of the fetal trunk circumference measurements.Visualising the gestational sac by B-mode ultrasound was first described by the Donald and Mac Vicar team in 1963.In 1965, they were able to demonstrate a 5-weeks gestational sac.This breakthrough has profound implication in the management of early pregnacy bleeding and threatened miscarriages.