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03-Feb-2020 03:04

Many authors simply assume that an animal like a bat has a point of view, but there seems to be little interest in exploring the details involved.A related argument revolves around non-human organisms' ability to feel pain.

Mark Rowlands argues that the real determinant of whether it is ethical to cause suffering is whether there is any vital need to cause it; if not, then causing it is unethical.

Ethologist Jane Goodall stated in the 2009 book The Inner World of Farm Animals that "farm animals feel pleasure and sadness, excitement and resentment, depression, fear and pain.

They are much more sensitive and intelligent than we ever imagined." stated in the "Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness in Non-Human Animals" that all mammals and birds (such as farm animals), and other animals, possess the neurological substrates that generate consciousness and are able to experience affective states.

Moreover, consciousness is not a black-or-white, all-or-nothing type of phenomenon, as is often assumed.

The differences between humans and other species are so great that speculations about animal consciousness seem ungrounded.

Mark Rowlands argues that the real determinant of whether it is ethical to cause suffering is whether there is any vital need to cause it; if not, then causing it is unethical.

Ethologist Jane Goodall stated in the 2009 book The Inner World of Farm Animals that "farm animals feel pleasure and sadness, excitement and resentment, depression, fear and pain.

They are much more sensitive and intelligent than we ever imagined." stated in the "Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness in Non-Human Animals" that all mammals and birds (such as farm animals), and other animals, possess the neurological substrates that generate consciousness and are able to experience affective states.

Moreover, consciousness is not a black-or-white, all-or-nothing type of phenomenon, as is often assumed.

The differences between humans and other species are so great that speculations about animal consciousness seem ungrounded.

By analogy with racism and sexism, Melanie Joy has dubbed meat-eating "carnism".